Liu Hengli, Li Xia, Yang Xinping, Yang Cuixian, Zhang Mi, Li Huiqin, Zhang Shuangmei, Wu Xingqian, Li Yuwei, Wang Haiyang
Objective To explore the clinical characteristics of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-related Fanconi syndrome (FS) in patients with HIV infection/AIDS (HIV/AIDS). Methods The medical records of patients with HIV/AIDS who were hospitalized in Yunnan Provincial Hospital of Infectious Diseases from December 2017 to February 2021, treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing TDF, and diagnosed as FS were collected by searching hospital information system. Information such as gender, age, body weight, body mass index (BMI), ART treatment regimen and period, time of FS diagnosis, main clinical characteristics, results of laboratory test at admission and discharge, dual energy X-ray bone mineral density (BMD) test results, and interventions and outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. Results A total of 16 HIV/AIDS patients were diagnosed with TDF-related FS in the setting period, including 6 patients with complete FS and 10 with incomplete FS. FS were accompanied with chronic hepatitis C, hypertension, liver cancer, or depression in 7 patients. Sixteen patients received ART containing TDF for a minimum of 20 months and a maximum of 168 months with an average time of 68 months. The initial symptoms of FS were bone pain, fatigue, nausea, anorexia, polydipsia, polyuria, weight loss, etc. The time from initial symptoms to diagnosis of FS was 2 weeks at least, 24 weeks at most, with an average time of 7 weeks. Laboratory test results were as follows: all 16 patients had positive urine glucose under normoglycemic conditions and 14 patients had positive urine protein; 11, 11, 4, and 4 patients had low urine phosphorus, hypocalciuria, hypokalemia, and hyponatruria, respectively; 13, 12, 8, and 7 patients had hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, and hyponatremia, respectively; 11 patients had serum creatinine increase; 10 patients had serum uric acid decrease; 1 patient had serum uric acid increase. Dual energy X-ray BMD detection was performed in 15 patients, of which 2, 2, and 11 patients had normal, reduced, and osteoporotic BMD, respectively. After diagnosis of TDF-related FS, 16 patients stopped using TDF immediately. After replacement of ART protocol without TDF and symptomatic treatment for an average time of 29 days, the above symptoms were alleviated, and some laboratory test indicators returned to the reference value range. The prognosis was good. Conclusions TDF-related FS mostly occurs within 68 months of drug use. The clinical symptoms of FS are nonspecific. Laboratory tests show that urine glucose is positive under normal blood glucose. Most of the patients have low blood phosphorus, low urine phosphorus, hypocalciuria, and osteoporosis. The prognosis is better after discontinuing TDF, replacing therapy with ART regimen without TDF, and giving symptomatic treatments.